This is the second installment in a series on Spanish dioramas, which I started with my previous post. The diorama shown here is also from the Museo de Aeronautica y Astronautica. It depicts the first balloon used in Spain for military purposes, from the year 1889. The diorama inscription informs us that the inflatable sphere was 10.8 meters in diameter, with a volume of 682 cubic meters. This aircraft was assigned to the 4th Company of the Engineering Arm of the Telegraphers Battalion.
The balloon was accompanied by horse drawn support vehicles supplying a hydrogen generator and a 500 meter cable. The technological contrast between this aircraft, which represented cutting edge technology at the time, and the horse drawn vehicles, which were comparatively primitive, adds to the interest of the scene.
The balloon was named Maria Cristina after the reigning Queen of Spain, who had a keen interest in lighter-than-air aircraft. Accompanied by Lieutenant-Colonel Lícer López, she participated in a test flight of the balloon to an altitude of 300 meters.
Compositionally, the diorama is nicely done. The balloon itself should naturally be the focal point of the diorama, and the artist has succeeded in making it so. The eye is immediately drawn to the balloon not just because of its size and height, but also its golden colour, which sets it apart from the greens and browns of the surroundings. In addition, the balloon is the most brightly lit object in the diorama, which adds even more emphasis. It is positioned off to one side and visually balanced by the support vehicles at the other end of the scene.
What makes this diorama especially effective is the illusion that the balloon is actually floating into the air on its own. This effect is reinforced by the slack in the control cables which the men around the balloon are handling. If all the cables were taut, they would look like stiff rods supporting the balloon, and the effect would be lost. Also, the area directly underneath the balloon is dark, hiding any physical supports. The background photograph adds a further element of realism and helps sell the scene.
The Museo de Aeronautica y Astronautica in Madrid, Spain features not only an extensive collection of full size aircraft, but some impressive miniatures and dioramas as well. To start off this series focusing on dioramas in Spain, I’m going to discuss a diorama by Miguel Martinez Jimenez entitled La Legion Condor Alemanes en Espana 12 Enero 1939.
The Spanish Civil War began when Francisco Franco’s Nationalists rebelled against the Republican government of Spain in 1936. The Nationalists received support and armaments from Germany and Italy, while the Republicans were assisted mainly by the Soviet Union and France. The Luftwaffe supplied four fighter squadrons to Franco (along with bombers and other aircraft) as part of the Condor Legion, manned by German pilots. The war claimed some half a million lives before Franco emerged victorious in 1939.
This diorama depicts two Condor Legion Messerschmitt Bf-109 aircraft on a Nationalist airfield. One is undergoing repairs in the hangar and the other is parked outside. The Spanish Civil War was the Bf-109’s first theatre of engagement, and the innovative German fighter proved itself to be vastly superior to its outdated Soviet-sourced adversaries. The 109’s uncontested superiority in the skies over Spain was instrumental in securing Franco’s victory.
The monochromatic Condor Legion markings are rather sombre looking and the roundels on the wings remind me of the “x” you’d write next to your candidate of choice when casting your vote at the ballot box. The 109 parked in front of the hangar is missing its entire cockpit canopy. Since it’s unlikely that all three canopy sections would be simultaneously removed for maintenance, we can assume that the absence of these pieces is accidental. The 109’s are in 1:32 scale and are probably kits rather than scratchbuilt miniatures, so the canopies would have been separate parts which simply came unglued and were lost at some point.
The scene is far from an idealized portrait of an airfield. Fuel drums are haphazardly scattered about the hangar, shop tools are strewn on the floor, and doors are left ajar. One of the mechanics is sitting on the wing of the 109, doing nothing.
The colourful regalia displayed on the hangar wall are the visual focal point of the scene and provide some political context. In the centre is the standard of the Condor Legion: an Iron Cross superimposed over red and yellow. The standard is flanked by a Spanish flag on the left and a swastika on the right, symbolizing Franco’s allegiance to Nazi Germany.