Tag Archives: Spanish Civil War

Historical dioramas from Spain – Part One

The Museo de Aeronautica y Astronautica in Madrid, Spain features not only an extensive collection of full size aircraft, but some impressive miniatures and dioramas as well. To start off this series focusing on dioramas in Spain, I’m going to discuss a diorama by Miguel Martinez Jimenez entitled La Legion Condor Alemanes en Espana 12 Enero 1939.

The Spanish Civil War began when Francisco Franco’s Nationalists rebelled against the Republican government of Spain in 1936. The Nationalists received support and armaments from Germany and Italy, while the Republicans were assisted mainly by the Soviet Union and France. The Luftwaffe supplied four fighter squadrons to Franco (along with bombers and other aircraft) as part of the Condor Legion, manned by German pilots. The war claimed some half a million lives before Franco emerged victorious in 1939.

This diorama depicts two Condor Legion Messerschmitt Bf-109 aircraft on a Nationalist airfield. One is undergoing repairs in the hangar and the other is parked outside. The Spanish Civil War was the Bf-109’s first theatre of engagement, and the innovative German fighter proved itself to be vastly superior to its outdated Soviet-sourced adversaries. The 109’s uncontested superiority in the skies over Spain was instrumental in securing Franco’s victory.

The monochromatic Condor Legion markings are rather sombre looking and the roundels on the wings remind me of the “x” you’d write next to your candidate of choice when casting your vote at the ballot box. The 109 parked in front of the hangar is missing its entire cockpit canopy. Since it’s unlikely that all three canopy sections would be simultaneously removed for maintenance, we can assume that the absence of these pieces is accidental. The 109’s are in 1:32 scale and are probably kits rather than scratchbuilt miniatures, so the canopies would have been separate parts which simply came unglued and were lost at some point.

The scene is far from an idealized portrait of an airfield. Fuel drums are haphazardly scattered about the hangar, shop tools are strewn on the floor, and doors are left ajar. One of the mechanics is sitting on the wing of the 109, doing nothing.

The colourful regalia displayed on the hangar wall are the visual focal point of the scene and provide some political context. In the centre is the standard of the Condor Legion: an Iron Cross superimposed over red and yellow. The standard is flanked by a Spanish flag on the left and a swastika on the right, symbolizing Franco’s allegiance to Nazi Germany.

-Ivar